"The physician must be experienced in many things, but most assuredly in rubbing." - Hippocrates
Fathers & Mothers Quiz
Many books tell a different tale on the history of massage evolved, but it is simple. Here is my take on the history of massage; if it hurts, you will touch it! Everyone massages by instinct. Whoever we are, when we are hurting, it is automatic to rub the pain away. When a baby cries, we hold, rock, & pat them to ease distress without thinking if we are doing it properly. A simple hug and stroke on a friend's back is often more comfort than words, all these things are massage.
*Dates of massage vary from place to place
*Please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org if you know of any changes I need to make or things you want added
*Fathers & Mothers
Cornelius E. De Puy, MD - The father of Massage therapy in the U.S.
Per Henrik Ling - The father of Swedish massage and father of PT
Dr. William Fitzgerald - The father of Reflexology
Dr. Emil Voder - The father of Lymphatic drainage
W.G. Sutherland - The father of Craniosacral therapy
Rene Maurice Gattefosse - The father of Aromatherapy
Dr. Robert Ward - The father of Myofascial release
Hippocrates - The father of modern medicine
Dr Stanley Lief - The father of Neuromuscular therapy
Andrew Taylor Still - The father of Osteopathic medicine
DD Palmer - The father of Chiropractic
Dr. Mikao Usui - The father of Reiki
Mr. Lust - The father of Naturopathy
Dr Max Lüscher - The father of Color therapy
David Palmer - The father of Chair massage
Raymond Nirnmo - The father of Trigger Point Therapy
Janet Travell - The mother of Trigger Point therapy
Eunice D. Ingham - The mother of Reflexology
Dr Tiffany Fields - The mother of massage research
Jack Meagher - The father of Sports Massage
*Modern Fathers & Mothers
Paul St. John - The father of modern NMT
Judith Walker DeLany - The mother of modern NMT
John Barnes - The father of modern Myofascial Release
Father Sebastian Kneipp - The father of modern Hydrotherapy
Dr. Upledger - The father of modern Craniosacral therapy
• Prehistoric Cave paintings of massage.
• The first recorded history of essential oils. In the oldest medical book 20 centuries before
Christ, the Emperor Kiwati-Ti had already studied opium and rhubarb and recognized their properties, as we know them today.
• Egypt had a well-developed social structure and people may have used massage then.
Imhotep, the physician, and architect recorded his knowledge of aromatic oils or unguents, made by mixing aromatic plants,resins and gums with oils or fats. Middle Kingdom Egyptians used bassi massage, which induced trance.
• Chinese: Cong-Fu of the Toa-Tse. It is the oldest known book written about massage.
Translated to French in 1700’s. Amma or anmo was their name of massage. They were the first to train blind masseurs.
• Archeological findings in Asia substantiate the fact that people have bathed in the mineral
waters in the Bronze Age.
2780 to 2680 B.C.
• When Greek physicians took their oath to Aesculapius, they were really swearing in to an
African originally named Imhotep. Some considers Aesculapius the father/god of medicine.
• Nei Ching describes therapeutic touch.
• The Chinese Lunar New Year is the longest chronological record in history, dating from
2600BC, when the Emperor Huang Ti introduced the first cycle of the zodiac.
• Egyptians created reflexology.
2,000 to 1,500 B.C.
• The oldest massage tool yet to be discovered is supposedly a Neolithic jade ritual blade from the Longshan culture of China, dating back to the Shang dynasty.
2000 B.C. -200 A.D.
• Cranial manipulation has been practiced in India for centuries, and was also developed by the ancient Egyptians and members of the Paracus culture in Peru (2000 BC to 200 AD).
1,800 to 500 B.C.
• Around this time, Massage possibly came to India from China.
• The Babylonians used Myrrh, Cypress and Cedarwood oils to heal the body of infections, thus being usedas antiseptics.
• Art of Life book that included massage techniques. In India, the focus was on sensual massage (Karma Sutra) aspects. Ayur-Veda (Ayurvedic) is a code of life and it deals with rebirth, renunciation, salvation, soul, purpose of life, and maintenance of mental health, prevention and treatment of diseases.
• Tuina dates back to the Shang dynasty.
• In Egypt the first record of chemotherapy being employed as a treatment for cancer.
• A medical papyri contains remedies for all types of illnesses and the methods of application are similar to the ones used in Aromatherapy and Herbal medicine today.
• The Jewish King David began construction on an enormous complex of waterworks and communal baths, or mikvahs, that were designed to provide practical ways to purify the mind and body.
• Homer wrote about an oily medium used for massage.
• Traditional Chinese compass school Feng Shui originated in China over 3000 years ago and was used to ensure that ancestral tombs and palaces were sited in the most auspicious places.
Today almost all Chinese buildings are designed according to Feng Shui principles.
• Palmistry is a method of counseling that originated in India over 3,000 years ago.
• Persian physician used magnets to relieve gout and muscle spasms.
800 to 146 B.C.
• The great gymnasiums of Greece had marble or wood slabs called plinths.
• Athletes massaged prior to their events in the Olympic games.
6th Century B.C.
• The historical Buddha Shakyamuni, sometimes called the Supreme Physician, is said to have first taught a healing system in India.
604 to 531 B.C.
• The founder of Taoism is believed to be Lao-Tse.
• Herodicus- prescribed gymnastics to heal. Considered to be the founder of medical Gymnastics.
• As with many indigenous peoples, the Thai people created their own blend of traditions and techniques called Thai Massage, linking Ayurvedic medicine, Buddhist spiritual practice, Chinese medicine and Yoga, as well as indigenous healing practices of ancient Siam. They treated disease and disharmony of physical, emotional, and spiritual origins. Nuad Bo'Rarn is the traditional medical massage. In Kurdistan, Breema developed - similar to Thai Massage.
460 to 380 B.C.
• Herodicus taught Hippocrates. He used Friction to treat sprains and dislocations (Called
anatripsis-Greek for friction). Thought that disease resulted from natural causes and the body has the power to heal itself.Hippocrates wrote the code of ethics that became the Hippocratic oath. Hippocrates said: “hard rubbing binds…much rubbing causes parts to waste…and moderate rubbing makes them grow.” He also said: "but assuredly in rubbing…for rubbing can bind a joint that is too loose, and loosen a joint that is too rigid."
• The Greeks learned Ayurvedic medicine from India.
• The first person to connect the idea that muscles were organs of contraction was Erasistratis who lived around 280 B.C.
• Greek physician Galan used natural magnets to relieve pain in treating many illnesses.
• The Huangdi Nei Jing (Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic) is the earliest surviving canonical text of traditional Chinese medicine. Anmo is referred to in 30 different chapters of the Nei Jing.
100 to 44 B.C.
• Julius Caesar used Massage therapy to relieve his neuralgia and epileptic seizures. He thought to have been “Pinched” every day.
• Chinese created acupuncture.
25 B.C. to 50 A.D.
• Aulus Cornelius Celsius was a Roman Physician who wrote De Medicina (8 textbooks with a lot of information on massage).
• Qi Gong is very closely allied to Tui Na Chinese Medical Massage; this may be the most commonly practiced modality in the world. The name literally means "skill with life energy" and it evolved over two thousand years ago in Tibet and China.
130 A.D. to 201 A.D.
• Galen was originally from Greece. He was a physician for the school of gladiators who were rubbed before fighting. He also wrote book on manual medicine.
• The first Chinese massage exam was in the Schools of Occult Studies.
• The earliest texts describing qigong (pronounced chee gong) date back almost 2,000 years to the first or second century AD.
228 A.D. to 337 A.D.
• The Roman Emperor Constantine condemned the baths and gymnasiums as he thought they added to the abuse of sex.
589 A.D. to 617 A.D.
• Sui Dynasty already had knowledge of Massage used as therapy.
• Tuina was included in the Imperial Medical College as a separate department.
6th Century A.D.
• Chinese techniques spread to Japan (via Korea), where Shiatsu developed (Finger pressure or acupressure), anma is massage in Japanese.
7th Century A.D.
• Tibetan medicine dates back to the Tibetan ruler, King Songtsen Gampo summoned his court physicians from China, India, and Iran to develop this medicinal system. Tibetan medicine is therefore based on the combination of Ayurvedic, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and Tibetan Buddhism, with elements of Arabic medicine.
980 A.D. to 1037 A.D.
• Avicenna a Persian medic wrote the Canon of Medicine and During the crusades the knowledge of aromatic oils and perfumes spread to the Far East and Arabia and it was a physician called Avicenna who lived from A.D 980 to A.D. 1037 that is understood to have first used the process known as distillation to distil essence of rose, although it probably took many years to perfect the process. The Persian physician known in the West as Avicenna, wrote 16 books on medicine, 68 books on philosophy and theology, 11 on astronomy and science, and 4 of poetry.
• A Persian physician used magnets to relieve gout and muscle spasms.
• France became the World leader in the use of perfumes - it was thought unhealthy to bathe so it became fashionable to hide the odors with perfumes!
1300 to 1368
• Guy dechauliac wrote a book on surgery mentioning bodywork as an adjunct to surgery.
1368 to 1644
• In the Ming Dynasty, pediatric massage (Which, for the first time, was referred to as "tuina") evolved into a highly systematic treatment modality, which is still popular today.
• Reflexology was practiced across the European social classes during the 14th Century.
1500 to 71
• Sculptor Cellini wrote of using pressure points to relieve pain. A book about this was published in 1582.
1517 to 1590
• Ambroise Pare a French barber surgeon raised awareness of the use of massage.
1564 to 1626
• Lord Francis Bacon observed that massage had benefits enhancing circulation.
• Girolamo Mercuriale wrote the first sports medicine book.
• Adamus and a'tatis described a pressure system.
• Zone therapy reportedly was in use in 16th century Europe.
1608 to 1679
• Giovanni Alfonso Borelli studied muscular contraction.
• The first known European acupuncture publication was dated 1658 and was published in Holland. The Dutch doctor Jakob de Bondt published an extensive, six volume work about the history of nature and medicine in East India.
1660 to 1742
• Friedrich Hoffman a physician to King of Prussia recommended rubbing and gymnastics for the royal court.
• Physicians in England wrote of the effects of magnetism.
1742 to 1823
• John Grosvenor, English surgeon practiced healing with hands.
1755 to 1833
• Early alternative approaches included homeopathy pioneered by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1833) in Germany and Austria, and incorporating emphasis on "natural" remedies including clean air, exercise, and plant remedies.
1769 to 1843
• "Thomsonianism" - an American healing strategy derived from the work of Samual A. Thomson (1769-1843) was contemptuous of contemporary medicine and favored cures based on vegetable preparations, especially plants that would induce body heat since he believed that all illnesses are associated with cold.
• The Jesuit Amiat contributed to European understanding with an article on “Chinese pressure point massage." This article influenced the Swedish therapeutic massage pioneer Ling.
1776 to 1839
• Per Henrik Ling (Father of Swedish massage and Father of Physical therapy) a fencing master and gymnast studied massage after he cured himself of rheumatism in his arm. Developed a system of Medical Gymnastics. While visiting in Paris in the early 18th century, a Swedish military officer named Per Henrik Ling was reportedly cured of a long-standing ailment by a priest who used a form of medical massage that he had learned in China. Returning home to Sweden, Ling persuaded the Swedish government to establish an academy to teach the Chinese procedures that had restored his health.
1799 to 1851
• Silesian farmer, Vincenz Priessnitz founded Hydropathy (later termed Hydrotherapy).
• Japanese philosopher and Christian seminary educator, Dr. Mikao Usui discovered Reiki is believed to date back to early Tibetan healing practices.
• Canadian Deep Muscle. This technique addresses specific muscles and muscle groups. The practitioners are trained to fix specific problems. It is a fundamental technique that offers fast results for both pain and stress. This form of cross fiber massage was first written about in the late 1800's in New York City.
• Philosopher and scientist Emmanuel Swedenborg described a rhythmic motion of the brain, stating that itmoves with regular cycles of expansion and contraction.
• Per Henrik Ling formed the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. His students carried on his work after his death.
• The father of massage therapy in the United States was Cornelius E. De Puy, MD, who published his first journal on the subject in 1817.
• Dr. Hans Burch Gram (of Dutch background, who had studied medicine in Copenhagen
where he had concentrated on homeopathy) returned to the United States and established the first homeopathic practice in the U.S. in New York.
• In the United states, the first publication on acupuncture in 1826 belongs to Bache Franklin M.D., great grandson of Benjamin Franklin.
1828 to 1917
• Andrew Taylor Still developed Osteopathic medicine.
• Ling’s disciple, M. Leron brought Movement Cure to Russia, St. Petersburg.
1839 to 1909
• Johann Mezger of Holland brought medical massage to scientific community and is considered the founder of scientific massage. Started using the terms effleurage, petrissage and tapotement.
• More recently in the West, the first medical descriptions of neuromuscular trigger points were made by a German physician, Dr. Froeriep.
• Two New York physicians’ brothers George and Charles Taylor, who studied in Sweden, introduced scientific massage therapy in the United States.
• Karl von Reichenbach discovered kerosene and paraffin.
• Mathias Roth an English physician who studied under Ling and published the first book in English on Swedish Movements.
1854 to 1920
• The field of massage in America rose from an obscure, unskilled trade to a specialty in medical healthcare.
• Mathias Roth, English physician, taught Charles Fayette Taylor and George Henry Taylor who brought massage to the US.
1852 to 1943
• John Harvey Kellogg, Battle Creek Sanitarium used massage and hydrotherapy. Published magazine called "Good Health"
• Massage was not studied or used scientifically in Russia until 1860.
• Berghman and Helleday in 1870's further developed and structured Lings method into four main phases: Effleurage (long gliding strokes ) Petrissage (kneading ), Friction and Tapotement (beatings).
• Dr. Mitchell introduced massage to the United States.
• Douglas Graham, Benjamin Lee and Charles Mills introduced the word massage in the United States and published articles.
• The Swedish investigator, Helleday described tender points and nodules in cases of chronic myositis.
• Douglas Graham described lomi lomi and wrote a history of massage. May have been first to use massage in USA.
• Mary Putnam Jacobi and Victoria A White in New York City were Medical Doctors and professors who researched the benefits of massage and ice packs in the management of anemia.
• Professor Charcot. French Physician taught Sigmund Freud and though French doctors should use massage more.
• Massage Scandals in Europe. Physicians became skeptical of claims made by massage therapist and accused practitioners of stealing patients.
• George Taylor, M.D., uses the terms "clapping, knockings, stroking, kneading, pulling, shakings and vibrating" as the passive movements used by Ling in his Swedish gymnastic system.
• Trigger points were first described by Dr. A. Weihe
• Emil Kleen, MD, PhD, author of Handbook of Massage commented on Ling and Swedish massage: "But, on the other hand, Ling's activity suffered from certain unfortunate defects. He lacked scientific training, and was ignorant of medicine."
• Dr. Hoffa named trigger points.
1894 to 1895
• 8 women formed “Society of Trained Masseuses” formed in Britain. Set up study of massage along with prerequisites for education and criteria for school recognition. Eventually became: The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy www.csp.org.uk
• Sigmund Freud used Massage Therapy to treat hysteria and did studies in Hysteria. Postulated that what we did not or will not confront in our lives would be buried in the body in the unconscious mind.
• DD Palmer, a Canadian, developed Chiropractic.
• In 1889, British physicians, who were just beginning to favourably acknowledge massage, because Queen Victoria supported the methods, became increasingly aware of the methods of abuse including false claims made about lay practitioners’ education or skills, patient stealing and charging high fees. It was the massage scandals of 1894, revealed by a commission of inquiry of the British Medical Association in the British Medical Journal which eroded the public and medical professions’ confidence in massage as a legitimate medical art during the late nineteenth century.
• Sir William Bennet started a massage department at St. George’s Hospital in London.
• Massage therapists were known as mechanotherapists.
• The great French neurologist Charcot brought the attention of medical world to hypnosis during the latter part of the 19th Century. He considered it a neurological condition. Freud, one of Charcot’s pupils, later began to use hypnosis as a tool to explore the mind.
• Albert Hoffa wrote the book “Technike der Massage”, he wrote about massaging the body in anatomical segments.
• Before the 1900’s, all massage was medical massage.
• Finnish School of Massage, originating from Swedish Massage system, develops first system of sports massage.
• Jin shin jyutsu, the "art of circulation awakening," was developed in Japan by Jiro Murai and
brought to the United States in the 1960s by Mary Iino Burmeister.
• An Australian actor F.M. Alexander developed the Alexander Technique, who felt that his own bad posture had caused his voice-loss problems.
• Shiatsu developed out of Anma toward the end of the Meiji era (1900-1912).
• A man called Lust developed Naturopathy and it is based on the idea that the body can heal itself, 'that thecause of disease is a violation of nature's laws'. This also concerns connective tissue.
• W. R. Gowers introduced the term 'fibrositis' to describe the palpable nodule, which he felt was associated with the fibrous elements of the musculoskeletal system.
• Edgar Ferdinand Cyriax used Ling’s Swedish Movement Cure and Mechanotherapeutics.
1911 to 1949
• Government led a campaign against traditional Chinese medicine in china.
• Tokujiro Namikoshi Sensei cured his mother's rheumatism (birth of Shiatsu Therapy)
• Dr. William Fitzgerald rediscovered Reflexology and called it Zone Therapy “The Father of Modern Reflexology.”
• Max Lange wrote the first treatment manual and did significant experiments. Lange used a devise to measure pressure and tension in muscles called a sklerometer.
• The well-known Swedish Institute in New York was founded.
• James Mennell. London. St. Thomas Hospital did physical treatment by movement, manipulation, and massage.
• Dr Riley mad the first detailed reflex diagrams and drawings of the feet.
• Swedish massage was used for rehabilitation of injured soldiers.
• Before this, devices used for massage tables were called couches, and were truly pieces of furniture.
• Massage was even taught to physicians in medical schools in the United States up until the mid 1920s.
• Physical therapists formed their first professional association in 1921, called the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association. Led by President Mary McMillan, an executive committee of elected officers governed the Association, which included 274 chapter members.
• New York State Society of Medical Massage Therapists (First massage association) was formed.
• French chemist René-Maurice Gattefossé coined the word Aromatherapy in 1928.
• At the first meeting of the Central Health Committee, the policy of "throwing out the old medicine and sweeping away obstacles to medical activity" was instituted in china.
• Elizabeth Dicke, German physical therapist created “Bindgewebs massage,” or connective tissue massage.
• England by Dr Stanley Lief developed neuromuscular Therapy (NMT), a system of soft-tissue manipulation techniques.
• German born Joseph Pilates developed Pilates; a set of exercises that concentrate on the back and abdominal muscles in a very precise, conscious way for a limited number of repetitions, using equipment. The idea is to strengthen the anatomical center of the body and correct the posture.
• The first portable massage table was developed and was made of a wood frame with metal or wood legs.
• The modern incarnation of visualization first developed in 1930 with the work of German psychiatrist and neurologist Johannes Schultz. Dr. Schultz devised ‘Autogenic Training’, a technique consisting of various mental exercises (including visualizing different parts of the body) to promote relaxation.
• Eunice Ingham (Mother of modern Reflexology), a nurse, established herself as a pioneer in the field of reflexology when she discovered that in using a pressure technique across the soles of the feet, she was able to stimulate and heal other parts of the body, rather than to merely numb sensations of pain. She also developed the map of the feet.
• Ida P. Rolf, Ph.D. an American biochemist (1896-1979) developed a form of myofascial massage in New York called Rolfing.
• Hospitals staffed Physical Therapists who were doing massage.
• British physician Edward Bach (1886-1936), developed Quasi-homeopathic system of ostensible diagnosis and treatment known as Bach flower therapy.
• Emil Voder. Danish physiologist created Manual Lymph Drainage.
• Wilhelm Reich - Austrian psychoanalysis was a student of Freud’s. Used Somato techniques to dissolve muscular armor and attempted to cure neuroses by releasing their corresponding muscle tensions by using breath, movement and physical manipulation. The community was outraged at the thought of using physical contact. He was sent to prison for his conflicts and died there. Bioenergetics, created by Alexander Lowen, emerged from Reich’s work.
• The government of china announced that "traditional medicine has no scientific foundation" and its practice was banned.
• A French chemist, Rene Maurice Gattefosse, began his research into the healing powers of essential oils after burning his hand in his laboratory and immersing in it in lavender oil and being impressed by how quickly the burn healed. He published a book about the anti -microbial effects of the oils and coined the word Aromatherapy.
• The Florida State Massage Therapy Association Inc. (FSMTA) was first organized on June 15, 1939 one of the oldest massage organization, with 85 charter members. The first Massage Act was passed by the Florida Legislature in 1943.
• James Cyriax, son of Edgar Ferdinand Cyriax, and British Osteopath, created deep transverse friction.
1940’s to 1970’s
• A small number of massage therapists carried on until a new surge of interest in massage therapy revitalized the field, and started the boom of alternative health care.
• Broad licensing began in the early 1940s.
• The face hole cut into the head of a stationary or portable table appeared.
• Dr Max Lüscher a Swiss psychologist started the basis of color therapy.
• Therese Pfrimmer of Canada developed Pfrimmer Deep Muscle Therapy.
• Nurses and physical therapists lost interest in massage therapy, virtually abandoning it.
• The Battlecreek Company, of Battlecreek, Michigan, manufactured the first lightweight massage table, an aluminum folding portable table.
• By the 1940's, spa as medicine in the U.S. was out, and Spa as pampering and beauty was in.
• Chicago American Association of Masseurs and Masseuses formed which later to become American Massage Therapy Association. (AMTA) dues were $.50.
• Harold Storms published an article on the benefits and effects of friction.
• Randolph Stone DO, DC, ND (1890-1981) developed Polarity Therapy.
• After the Communist Revolution in china, the new government began a policy of promoting traditional medicine.
• Massage Registration Act formulated by AMM.
• Dr. Robert Lovett M.D. and the American physiotherapists Henry and Florence Kendall developed Manual muscle testing.
• Floatation was discovered when space scientists were trying to simulate weightlessness when training astronauts.
• Reiki was brought to the United States in the mid-1900.
• Francis Tappan and Gertrude Beard wrote books and articles on massage techniques.
• Bowen technique, this form of gentle but precise soft tissue manipulation. This massage technique is named after Australian Tom Bowen.
• Pauline Carte PhD developed Trauma Erase. And she was a pioneer in the field of kinesiology.
• Tibet medicine is a blend of traditional Indian and Chinese medicine and Bon (Indigenous culture’s medicine) but has been endangered since the Chinese communist invasion. Remnants survive in Mongolia and Russia.
• Janet Travell researches Trigger points. (Dec 17, 1901 - Aug 1, 1997)
• Hoshino Therapy developed by Tomezo Hoshino; Hoshino Therapy is an official medical therapy in Argentina.
• Strain Counterstrain technique was founded by an osteopath named Dr. Lawrence Jones.
• JFK found Travell's Trigger Point Therapy a godsend for his aching muscles.
• Shiatsu was finally legally approved in 1955 by the Japanese government as a part of Anma massage.
• Margaret Knott and Dorothy Vass wrote a book called “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular
• Ministry of Health of Japan issued a definition of Shiatsu
• The government established both a tuina clinic and a tuina school in Shanghai.
• Trager "Movement education approach" developed by Milton Trager, M.D., a former boxer and acrobat.
• The most recent revival of massage began. The combination of the humanistic movement and the fitness movement of the late 1960's shaped a field of health care that we recognize as complementary today, and one in which massage plays an integral role.
• French homeopaths Dr and Mme Maury developed Aromatherapy.
• George Goodheart developed Applied kinesiology or "touch for health".
• Albert Baumgartner used Massage in Athletics.
• Esalen became a center to explore human potential. Ida Rolf did her first trainings there. Deane Juhan worked there. Bernie Gunther trained people to give massage.
• China’s Cultural Revolution during the 1960’s and 1970’s saw the banning of qigong.
• Body Wraps were first introduced in 1961 in USA.
• Excavations at a tomb in the Henan province of China discovered a round, concave stone which is believed to have been used for anmo treatment. The stone includes a depression on its concave surface where the practitioner's finger was inserted in order to assist in applying force. Also found at the site was a series of stone instruments (Rods, hammers, pit-shaped stones, cups) used in percussion massage.
• Chiropractor George Goodheart founded Applied Kinesiology.
• It was not until 1964 that Shiatsu was recognized as distinct and independent from Anma.
• Dr Ida Rolf started teaching Rolfing.
• Raymond Nimmo-Wrote book " The Receptor Tonus Method ", which came from his work with "noxious generative points". Also called Trigger Point Therapy.
• Michio Kushi introduced Do-In in the United States.
• John Barnes – developed Myofascial Release Therapy
• Rolfing is the creation of Ida Rolf, a biochemist and physiologist who established the Rolf Institute for Structural Integration.
• Alan Herdman brought Pilates to England.
• Leonard Orr developed rebirthing.
• Osteopath and Acupuncturist Fritz Smith, M.D., a system of acupressure-like bodywork that is called Zero Balancing.
• Infant massage was created in the United States as a parenting tool.
• Moshe Feldenkrais developed The Feldenkrais method. He began teaching his method in North America.
• San Francisco physical therapist Marion Rosen developed The Rosen Method.
• During the 1970’s, sports massage therapy made a resurgence and is now seen at almost all major sporting events around the world.
• The Rolf Institute, in Boulder, Colorado was founded.
• Dolores Krieger, Ph.D., R.N., and Dora van Gelder Kunz, a clairvoyant born in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), initiated Therapeutic Touch.
• Moshe Feldenkrais, writes "Awareness through Movement" which follows up to his 1949 publication "The Body and Mature Behavior.” Studies of sensory awareness and movement re-education somewhat based on F.M. Alexander's work.
• The journalist, James Reston, brought acupuncture to the attention of the American public and the scientific community in 1972 with a front-page article in the New York Times, telling of his emergency appendectomy while accompanying President Nixon to China.
• Dr. Fritz Smith, Medical doctor, Osteopath and Acupuncturist developed Zero Balancing.
• Myotherapy developed by Bonnie Prudden.
• Dr. Frederick Leboyer, a frequent traveler to Indian introduced his book, Loving Hands to the United States. Many of the massage techniques in his book are the ones fashioned for parents today.
• Diana Moore, MS, LMT, began developing an infant massage program for parents. She had traveled to India and witnessed mothers practicing massage on their chidlren.
• Dr. Arthur Lincoln Paul developed Ortho-Bionomy and he is a British osteopath.
• Judith Aston developed Aston Patterning (Form of Rolfing).
• Vimala McClure, began introducing infant massage. she had traveled to Indian and also witnessed mothers massaging their children.
• Ilana Rubenfeld began teaching the Rubenfeld Synergy Method.
• 5,767 entries were listed in the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Substances.
• James Cyriax described his concept of deep transverse friction in a book.
• Joseph Heller an aerospace engineer started Hellerwork (Form of Rolfing).
• Soma Neuromuscular Integration developed by Bill Williams, PhD, one of the first students of Ida Rolf. Combines structural integration with psychological therapy to realign the body, mind, and spirit.
• St. John Method of Neuromuscular Therapy was developed and he began teaching seminars while maintaining a clinical practice to further his research.
• The Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine established an "acupuncture/tuina" major.
• David Palmer markets On Site Massage.
• Canadian Deep Muscle Massage was developed at Georgetown Bodyworks, the oldest massage & bodywork center in Washington D.C.
• The face cradle that attaches to the end of the massage table was first introduced.
• Association of Bodywork and Massage Practitioners formed.
• Harold Dull developed Watsu (Water shiatsu).
• Clinical psychologist Roger J. Callahan, Ph.D., developed Thought Field Therapy.
• Stuart Taws, a British sports rehabilitation therapist developed Taws Method (Soft Tissue Release).
• The International Association of Infant Massage Instructors was formed by a group of women, Vimala was their founder, Diana Moore was one of the founding board of directors along with five others.
• Lauren Berry, a physical therapist and mechanical engineer, recorded his methods of manipulating joints.
• Lawrence H. Jones identifies tender points and develops "Strain- Counterstrain" techniques of treating points.
• In 1982 the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to standardize the ear points. Together with the Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion Association, a number of standard points were formulated. These International Standard Auricular Points (ISAP) of which there are 90, are grouped into four types. Group 1 - Sixty one Points Named after various anatomical parts of the body. Group
2 - Twenty Points Named in Accordance with Auricular Anatomy. Group 3 - Five Points Named in Accordance with Orthodox Medicine. Group 4 - Four Points Named according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
• Janet Travell wrote a book with David Simons, "Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Triggerpoint Manual: Volumes I & 2.
• Olympic Games in Los Angeles massage was officially offered for the first time.
• Massage Magazine was founded and is the first and only independent magazine dedicated to this purpose.
• David Palmer created the first massage chair.
• Gerry Pyves developed No Hands Massage in Halifax.
• Associated Bodywork and Massage Professionals (ABMP) was founded.
• Due to lack of ability to use hands for soft tissue mobilization, Graston invents his first instrument and the patent process was started on what later becomes known as the Graston Technique.
• American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA) was founded.
• Protocol for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) defined by the American College of Rheumatology.
• The desktop face cradle was created and designed for giving massage where a chair was not available.
• Lastone massage is an oil massage supplemented by the placing of hot volcanic and cool marble stones on the body.
• “TRI” Touch Research Institute created by Tiffany Fields.
• Discovery of "The Ice Man", a 5,300-year-old mummified man found in the Italian Alps along the border with Austria. The frozen body was remarkably well preserved. One of the most remarkable discoveries was a complicated system of bluish-black tattoos running along his back, right knee and left ankle. The locations of the "tattoos" corresponded precisely to acupuncture points and meridians, including the 'master point for back pain'.
• The National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork (NCBTMB) was started.
• Diana Moore founded the International Loving Touch Foundation to continue in the practice of teaching and developing programs for parents and their infants and health care professionals.
• Cary Cruea of Seattle, Washington created the Massage Bar. It utilizes a separate desktop face cradle attached to the countertop.
• The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established by Congress.
• Complimentary Alternative Medicine law (CAM) was started in Minnesota
• The NCBTMB changes their format and they developed two types of tests.